While many formal organizations established by ethnic identity groups are apolitical, others are created explicitly for political purposes. Most citizen action groups are relatively well funded, and many employ the same tactics e.
These findings are robust when running the model separately for each of the three countries.
Surprisingly, the effect of the weak pro argument is to reduce TTIP approval when combining the three groups that received different source cues, this effect is statistically significant at the 95 per cent level.
People that possess much information about a policy will neither need an argument nor a cue to establish their attitudes.
By contrast, the source cues do not matter at all.
Moreover, an interest group might also make use of financial resources in order to donate to a political campaign. Even without large-scale permanent organizations, citizens often organize themselves into ad hoc associations aimed at influencing public policy decisions.
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People with little information about a policy, by contrast, may use information contained in a message to adjust their attitudes.
In addition to this framing effect, statements by political elites may also have an impact on attitudes by changing the beliefs themselves.
There, the expectation was that the effect of interest group source cues should be conditional on trust. Individual attitudes on TTIP thus can be influenced, but arguments clearly matter more than interest group source cues.
For the group confronted with this argument, the probability of opposing TTIP increases to 54 per cent and the probability of being in favour of TTIP drops to 19 per cent.