Literature review of organizational structures and models

It brings the best aspects of functional and projectized organizations. Moreover, efficiency can further be realized as functional organizations integrate their activities vertically so that products are sold and distributed quickly and at low cost.

Organizational structure pdf notes

Configurations of organizational structure according to Mintzberg[ edit ] Parts of organization[ edit ]. The disadvantages of the divisional structure is that it can support unhealthy rivalries among divisions. Precision, speed, unambiguity, … strict subordination, reduction of friction and of material and personal costs- these are raised to the optimum point in the strictly bureaucratic administration. According to Zainbooks. Organizational structures should be adaptive to process requirements, aiming to optimize the ratio of effort and input to output. This, in turn, can be confusing for employees to understand who is next in the chain of command. With the growth of the internet, and the associated access that gives all levels of an organization to information and communication via digital means, power structures have begun to align more as a wirearchy , enabling the flow of power and authority to be based not on hierarchical levels, but on information, trust, credibility, and a focus on results. In essence, managers in network structures spend most of their time coordinating and controlling external relations, usually by electronic means. The matrix structure may improve upon the "silo" critique of functional management in that it aims to diminish the vertical structure of functional and create a more horizontal structure which allows the spread of information across task boundaries to happen much quicker. Such divergence decreases performance, when growing as a wrong organizational structure may hamper cooperation and thus hinder the completion of orders in due time and within limits of resources and budgets. This sort of horizontal decision-making by consensus model is often used in housing cooperatives , other cooperatives and when running a non-profit or community organization. As companies grow they tend to become more complex and hierarchical, which leads to an expanded structure, with more levels and departments. Still other theorists are developing a resurgence of interest in complexity theory and organizations , and have focused on how simple structures can be used to engender organizational adaptations.

The tension between bureaucratic structures and non-bureaucratic is echoed in Burns and Stalker's [7] distinction between mechanistic and organic structures. Heckscher, arguing along these lines, describes them as cleaned up bureaucracies, [9] rather than a fundamental shift away from bureaucracy.

This may include total quality managementculture management and matrix managementamongst others.

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Alleles are different forms of a gene. It featured multiple levels of command and duplicate service companies existing in different regions. As a whole, a functional organization is best suited as a producer of standardized goods and services at large volume and low cost.

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This results in managers performing better and high employee morale. Also, a company will have a simpler process if they need to change the size of the business by either adding or removing divisions.

For instance, Miner et al.

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Organizational structure