The issues of adolescent pregnancy
Adolescent pregnancy is in part the failure of society, the home, school, church, and health community to adequately teach sex education.
Absolute number of life birth among girls aging below 15 years in Austria between and Sexuality is a dynamic concept and is about much more than sexual activity and sexual orientation alone .
Furthermore, these early adolescent girls were significantly shorter and lighter than all older age groups, even late adolescent mothers.
Because it appears that a disproportionate number of the women who abandon or kill their newborns are young, the problem must be considered alongside the larger issues of teen pregnancy and adolescent sexuality .
Teenage mother receives medical care during pregnancy, birth, and after birth free of charge. The most common infections are Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus, Mycoplasma, Trichomonas vaginalis.
Nearly half of all deliveries in developing countries take place without the help of a skilled professional. Prevention of adolescent pregnancy More young people of diverse demographic characteristics are having sexual relations at younger ages; they have more options for preventing pregnancy; they have more alternative pregnancy resolutions; and fewer marry to legitimize a non-marital birth while choosing to become a parent .
Effects of teenage pregnancy on the baby
Suggestions for improving the situation included 1 developing a community based approach which utilizes school sex education integrated with parent, church, and community groups, 2 increasing teenage knowledge of contraception, and 3 providing counseling and medical and psychological health, education, and nutrition of the mother and father in order to reduce low birth weight babies and the school dropout rates. Therefore, we have no information how many adolescent girls became pregnant because no official abortion statistics exist in Austria. Core competencies in adolescent health and development for primary care providers: including a tool to assess the adolescent health and development component in pre-service education of health-care providers. There are also up to three times more adolescent pregnancies in rural and indigenous populations than in urban populations 9. Health consequences Adolescent pregnancy remains a major contributor to maternal and child mortality, and to intergenerational cycles of ill-health and poverty. These observations, however, are based on studies among social-deprived subpopulations and from third-world countries with very poor medical conditions [ 30 , 36 — 38 ]. Moralists who judge actions by their consequences alone could argue that abortion is equivalent to a deliberate failure to conceive a child and, since contraception is widely available, abortion should be too. Contraception and abortion became more readily available in the mids and s, breaking the link between sex and reproduction. The six main objectives were defined as follows: reducing marriage before the age of 18; creating understanding and support to reduce pregnancy before the age of 20; increasing the use of contraception by adolescents at the risk of unintended pregnancy; reducing coerced sex among adolescents; reducing unsafe abortion among adolescents. But sexuality norms coming from the same people are often internally conflicting, too. Such policies also need to address the practical support necessary to allow parenting girls to return to school — for example, through the provision of cash transfers to girls or by providing child care - and consequently require allocated budgets to support their implementation.
Furthermore, the effects of social support on the outcome of a small sample of teenage pregnancies were tested. Inthere was much debate concerning the teenage motherhood of Bristol Palin, the daughter of Sarah Palin, the Governor of Alaska and vice presidential candidate of the United States.
The issues of adolescent pregnancy
The years following menarche are often characterized by anovulation and consequently the likelihood of successful conception is quite low [ 11 ]. Preventing early pregnancy and poor reproductive outcomes among adolescents in developing countries. The standard of living is exceptionally high in Austria; this is especially true of the social welfare system which includes public health service for all inhabitants on nearly equal conditions and universal health insurance coverage. The most common infections are Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus, Mycoplasma, Trichomonas vaginalis. It is really a chicken-egg debate because it remains unclear if social disadvantage is the reason or the result of teenage motherhood [ 47 ]. Girlhood, not motherhood: Preventing adolescent pregnancy. In a first step, special help desks for young girls were introduced. Study: maternal age and birth outcome The first study was based on a data set of 10, singleton term births 39—41st gestational weeks which took place at the largest birth clinic in Austria, the University Clinic for Gynecology and Obstetrics in Vienna between and Although teenage motherhood in Austria is not among the lowest in developed countries, the positive effects of mandatory sex education and legal abortions on teenage motherhood rates can be seen. Teenage pregnancies as a worldwide phenomenon Today, teenage pregnancies are a worldwide phenomenon.
Consequently, these girls may feel that they are old enough to start with sexual activity. An estimated 2. Cesarean section rate remained the same in the adolescents during the last 18 years, and the incidence of abnormally adherent or incomplete placentas decreased.
In developed countries, by contrast, teenage birth rates are quite low and teenage motherhood is discouraged, debated as a public health problem and considered as a societal challenge.
Why is teenage pregnancy a social problem
The mean age at first birth between and Now women, like men, could choose whether or not to become a parent and could engage in sex solely for pleasure without the looming fear of unwanted pregnancy. The results of this project have already been published [ 62 — 65 ]. They are a part of the very essence of our being as are our sciences, history, philosophy, and fine arts. Every day at least 1, mothers die worldwide from complications of pregnancy or childbirth-the equivalent of four jumbo jets crashing every day with no survivors . Our ability to reproduce comes from our sexual behavior and our feelings about our sexuality and sexual identity can be deeply affected by our sense of our own fertility. Teenage motherhood from a historical viewpoint From a historical point of view, teenage pregnancies are nothing new. According to the World Health Statistics , the average global birth rate among 15—19 year olds is 49 per girls, whereas country rates range from 1 to births per girls. Thus, the counselor or therapist working with an adolescent who announces her pregnancy has even more of a responsibility to assure that the adolescent is capable of making such a difficult decision. Teenage motherhood in Austria According to the Forbes list , Austria is the 12th richest country in the world and according to the gross domestic product GDP per capita the third richest country in the European Union. Cavendish Publishing Limited, London WHO Although there has been a trend to grant adolescents some limited legal rights, for example, in adjudicating juvenile criminal actions, the opposite trend has been witnessed in adolescent abortion cases where minors are required to obtain permission from or notify at least one parent or else be prepared to justify their secrecy by going before a judge in a special bypass procedure. Social consequences of adolescent pregnancy Adolescent pregnancy can also have negative social and economic effects on girls, their families and communities. In detail, group 1 comprised 19 extremely young mothers aging between 12 and 14 years at the time of giving first birth, while group 2 comprised mothers aging between 15 and 19 years at the time of giving first birth.
based on 12 review