J Geophys Res B As is the case with many geologic phenomena, the time scales over which volcanoes evolve greatly exceed that of a human lifetime. Volcanic Explosivity Index of 4—Newhall and Self Open image in new window Fig.
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Geophys Res Lett — From Siebert et al. J Geodesy — In the last three decades of the twentieth century volcanology experienced a major change in its scientific status, with events such as the eruption of Mount St.